Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is recognized as one of the most important infectious diseases causing serious economic loss in the swine industry worldwide. Due to its increasing genetic diversity, a rapid and accurate diagnosis is critical for PRRS control. The immunochromatographic strip test (ICST) is a rapid and convenient type of immunoassay. In this study, an on-site immunochromatographic assay-based diagnostic method was developed for detection of PRRS virus (PRRSV)-specific antibodies. The method utilized colloidal gold nanoparticle-labeled dual-type nucleocapsid proteins encoded by open reading frame 7. We evaluated 991 field samples from pig farms and 66 serum samples from experimentally PRRSV-inoculated pigs. Based on true PRRSV-specific antibody-positive or -negative sera determined by immunofluorescence assay and IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the specificity and sensitivity of the ICST were 97.5% and 91.1%, respectively, similar to those of a commercial ELISA (IDEXX PRRS X3 Ab). More importantly, the ICST was completed within 15 min and could detect the PRRSV-specific antibody at an earlier stage of infection (3–7 days) than that of ELISA (7+ days). The results demonstrate that the developed ICST has great potential as an on-farm diagnostic method, providing excellent diagnostic performance in a quick and convenient manner.