The purposes of this study are to examine the mediating effect of job-seeking stress in the relationship between family adversity and suicidal ideation of college students and to verify the mediated moderation effect of resilience. A questionnaire survey to which 686 college students living in 17 cities and provinces across the nation responded was utilized Measurement tools are adversities in the family environment, job-seeking stress, resilience, and suicidal ideation. The PROCESS macro for SPSS was used to analyze the model. The results were as follows. First, a significant mediating effect of job-seeking stress on the relationship between family adversity and suicidal ideation was found. Also, it had a partial mediating effect on suicidal ideation. Secondly, resilience moderated the relation between job-seeking stress and suicidal ideation. Lastly, the moderated mediating effect of resilience (personal resilience and environmental resilience) on the relationship between family adversity, job-seeking stress, and suicidal ideation was statistically significant. These results are meaningful in that they examines the relationships among family adversity, job-seeking stress, and suicidal ideation, and the moderated mediation effects of resilience. Moreover, basic data is provided to promote better mental health of college students.